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The Programme of the Education
The Programme for a SPA trainer

The terms and the programme of the third degree exam
The eduacation consists of three degrees

The student should, after having passed the first and second degree exam, lead at least 80 sessions in a psychodrama group together with a colleague who has passed the first or second degree exam. The groups take plase once per week. Each session lasts 120 minutes or more often 180 minutes. That means that the student should lead the group as a co-therapist at least 160 to 240 hours. The student may lead by himself certain number of sessions. Up to 30 sessions the student led after having passed the first degree exam can be recognized. It is necessary that the student should write a text about important events in each session and work under supervision. He should have 40 sessions of group supervision each lasting 90 minutes, i. e. 80 hours of supervision under the trainer-supervisor and still another 40 session each lasting 90 minutes in student peer supervision group which means another 80 hours of supervision. That means 240 hours of group leading and 160 hours under supervision which totally makes 400 hours. The positive assessment of the supervisor and trainer of successful session leading is needed.

After having passed the second degree exam, the student should spend another 270 hours as an experiential-educational group member, which means that he should have totally 810 hours in an experiential-educational psychodrama group. The trainers can recognize a part of psychodrama hours previously done in some other psychodrama educational group, but it is necessary that the student has at least 70% of psychodrama hours from 810 psychodrama hours in educational groups of SPA Moreno. He should be at least four times a protagonist, he should lead the educational group at least three times as a director and he should successfully prepare and lead a process six times. After having done the process, he should write a paper in which he integrated the other students; ideas. The trainers assess the students psychotherapeutic advance and they can require that the student should have additional experience in psychotherapy and be a client in a group analysis or individual therapy. The trainers ought to offer arguments for their decision and explain it. In total sum, the student should have 810 hours in an educational-experiential psychodrama group, 214 hours in group analysis (a part of the previous psychotherapy through which the student has passed outside SPA Moreno education can be recognized), 400 hours of the psychodynamic and psychodrama therapy and additionally recognized hours spent for the preparation of the essays for the first, second and third degree exam and seminar papers. A part of the theoretical education which the student has accomplished in some other form of education can be recognized depending on how many hours in the group therapy and psychodrama theory he had. The student will make totally 1824 hours along with leading of 80 group sessions under supervision, i. e. another 400 hours.

The student should write a clinical paper where he will describe the group and therapeutic processes in the psychodrama groups he led. He will describe and explore the cohesion and development of the group and therapeutic processes in the series of sessions he led using the practical examples and theoretical explanations linked with a protagonist or a group taken as a whole or with subgroups. The student should show his clinical judgement during the leading of the series of sessions, advance and test the psychodynamic and psychodrama hypotheses, he should show his internal stream of consciousness as well as his relationships with the group and protagonists. He should describe the tele phenomena, the relationships in the group, the transference and countertransference, the sociometric processes, he should notice and describe the possible repetitions in the protagonists behaviour, the templates and patterns of the behaviour and roles, the possible roles conflicts and connect all this with the important events and the relationships from the past when it is possible. He should explore that as far as possible in the group process and on the psychodrama scene. The student should assess the therapeutical development of the individuals in the group and possible resistances. The clinical paper should be assessed favourably by each of three The Examining Board members. When it is necessary, the candidate, advised by The Examining Board, will write the supplements and the clarifications of the papers.

The student who is not employed on permanent basis in the mental health professions should have enough clinical experience, that is to be a resident in a psychiatric hospital, daily hospital, psychotherapeutic centres together with an experienced psychiatrist, clinical psychologist or a special education teacher. It is necessary to acquire enough experience so that he can recognize the signs and symptoms of the risk of the psychotic breakdown, major depression, suicidal risk as well as possible aggressive and destructive behaviour, drug and alcohol addiction. He should know the basic elements of the psychiatric medication. The student can begin this clinical residency before taking the second degree exam. The length of the residency, i. e. the number of the accomplished hours and extent of advance will be assessed by the trainers for each student separetly. The students who did not graduate from one of five mentioned faculties will be able to become a non-clinical psychodrama therapist.


When the student has met all the previously mentioned terms, his next task is the practical exam where he from the very beginning leads the psychodrama group session in the presence of three The Examining Board members. The following text is a sequel, appendix and there are some repetitions. The candidate is expected to show more clinical understanding and to show it in practical group leading. He should notice the needs of the group and the individuals as well as their resistances and he should show them through the psychodrama and return to the group. It is essential that the director notes some possible destructive expressions in time and provide enough safety for the expression of enough spontaneity and creativity. He should also enable the group to show its discontent, anger, aggression but he must stop its evolving into destruction. The student director should be able to work with the negative transference and negative countertransference, but also to follow the tele phenomena in the group. It is especially important for him to follow the genuine needs of the protagonist and group, to notice possible protagonists distrust and not to collide with the protagonist and group. He should be in harmony with the group, protagonist and psychodrama development, encourage them and not inhibit them. When it is necessary, he should explore through the psychodrama the relationships between the protagonist, director and group. He should use the creative group potential with the help of the doubles, but he must not permit the protagonist to be overwhelmed by the doubles when they do not work and he should explain that to the group. During the events on the scene he should also follow the emotional developments in the group and pay attention to an individual in the public at right moment. He should enable the development of the scene, discern when to be near the protagonist and when to withdraw. He should enable the expression of the emotions and the non-verbal expressions. He should enable the development of the spontaneity and creativity. The candidate director should show in practice that in a psychodrama session all are the participants including the director. He should follow and develop the group process and, when it is possible, illustrate the group relationships on the scene and follow them with means of psychodrama. He should develop the cohesion and follow the therapeutic group potential. He should show that he is both a psychodrama and a group therapist. He should have his psychodynamic and psychodrama hypothesis, but he should not be rigid and intrusive; he should work together with the protagonist and group and so test his ideas. He should not be perfect, but he should lead the group safely. After having finished the scene part of the session, the director should encourage in the sharing those group members who during the role acting on the scene had intense experience. When it is necessary, de role is done. The group member who was an auxiliary ego should explore the possible similarities and differences of the role he played. When there is time and need, the director with the group members may initiate the action sharing. The director is expected to show steadily and practically that he knows the group dynamic and implementation of the psychodrama technique; he should not be perfect but safe enough.

After having finished the sharing, as in the second degree exam, there is 25 minutes break when the candidate prepares his selfassessment of the group and protagonist leading, the important events in the group as well as the possible failures and alternatives. The student may set forth his view of the psychodynamic, group process as well as the psychotherapeutic developments, connect it with the psychodrama view and action on the scene, explain it clearly and answers the questions with the practical examples clearly. The protagonist sets forth his experience and the rest of the students may comment it briefly.

The Examining Board puts to the candidate practical and theoretical questions. It is important that the candidate shows enough psychodynamic and clinical judgement and integrates it with the psychodrama as much as possible. The session should be psychotherapeutically efficient enough and the candidate should understand the possible needs for the corrections in his work. He should show the capacity to understand the comments, his personal developments and their reflection on the group, suggestions and constructive criticisms and to correct himself, when it is necessary, in order to make futher progress. The student should also show the solid clinical and psychodrama knowledge, his capacity to expound his clinical judgement clearly and with good grounds, explain his ideas and interventions during the group leading and show it in practice. But he should be also open to the other ideas and psychodrama approaches because these riches of the different psychodrama possibilities show the beauty and art of psychodrama and its potential for futher development.

The Examining Board assessment and the outcome of the exam:

1. The student passed the exam.

2. The student passed the exam under certain conditions. As with the taking exam for the second degree, the student should lead successfully another three dramas in his experiential-educational group and act as a protagonist another three times. He should show the advance and perhaps write or complete his paper.

3. The candidate has to take the whole exam again. Perhaps he should write another paper in agreement with the Examining Board.

The Examining Board members will give their oral comment after the exam and later they will write down their comment on the exam.

The candidate who has passed the third degree exam met all the conditions for further advance and he can become a SPA trainer. Programme of becoming a SPA trainer will be given in special text.

The chief SPA trainer

Dusan Potkonjak

June 2006